Category Archives: Presentation summaries

Clement Attlee – MP for Limehouse 1922. By Ann Evans

Clement Attlee. Source: National Archives INF 14/19

On Monday 9th October Ann Evans introduced us to the truly fascinating story of Clement Attlee.

In 1905 aged 22, Attlee, with his brother Laurence, set off from Putney station and travelled to Stepney Green.  Within a few steps of the station, they entered a very different world. Attlee described travelling along the “ weary waters sad and brown…. Threading the close packed reaches of the town” as they headed towards “ squalid tenements of ill renown”.  This was the dark heart of “Outcast London”.  The East end of 1905 was densely populated by dockworkers, casual labourers and notorious for unemployment, poverty, crime and disease.  As the “Observer”, stated in 1944, Attlee “went left by going east.”

The two Attlee boys were headed to the Haileybury Club, an institution founded by their old school, for boys between the ages of fourteen and eighteen.  It was at the boys’ club that Attlee began his intellectual enquiry into the problems of poverty that confronted him in the East End. He read widely and came to the conclusion that the Poor Law system had failed its purpose miserably. Little had changed since the 1830s, when it distinguished between the “deserving” and “undeserving” poor.  The deprivation and poverty that he experienced while working with slum children changed his political views. He felt that private charity would never be able to alleviate this poverty and that only direct action by the state would have any serious effect. He converted to socialism and joined the Independent Labour Party in 1908.

A street in Limhouse.

Attlee joined up in September 1914. He served in the Gallipoli campaign, holding the line at Lala Baba. He became an admirer of Winston Churchill despite the failure of the action.  He later served in the Mesopotamia Campaign in Iraq, where he was badly wounded.  His final service was in France.

After the war Attlee re-immersed himself in local politics. He became mayor of Stepney in 1919.  The council under his leadership tackled slum landlords, appointed health visitors and sanitary inspectors, worked to reduce infant mortality and took action to find work for returning unemployed ex-servicemen. He expressed his feelings in his poem Limehouse, written in 1912.

In Limehouse, in Limehouse, before the break of day,
I hear the feet of many men who go upon their way,
Who wander through the City,
The grey and cruel City,
Through streets that have no pity,
The streets where men decay.

In Limehouse, in Limehouse, by night as well as day,
I hear the feet of children, who go to work or play,
Of children born in sorrow,
The workers of tomorrow,
How shall they work tomorrow Who get no bread today

In Limehouse, in Limehouse, today and every day
I see the weary mothers who sweat their souls away:
Poor tired mothers trying
To hush the feeble crying
Of little babies dying
For want of bread today.

In Limehouse, in Limehouse, I’m dreaming of the day
When evil time shall perish and be driven clean away
When father, child and mother
Shall live and love eachother
And brother help his brother
In happy work and play.”

In 1920 he wrote in The Social Worker: “In a civilised community, although it may be composed of self-reliant individuals, there will be some persons who will be unable at some periods to look after themselves, and the question of what is to happen to them may be solved in three ways – they may, be neglected, they may be cared for by the organised community as of right, or they may be left to the goodwill of individuals in the community.” In 1922 Attlee was elected as MP for Limehouse.  In 1935, George Lansbury resigned after delegates at the Labour Party Conference supported sanctions against Italy for its aggression towards Abyssinia.  Baldwin announced an election in November 1935, with no time for a leadership contest, Attlee agreed to be interim leader. After winning 38% of the vote, Attlee stood for the leadership against Herbert Morrison and Arthur Greenwood. Attlee was elected as a competent and unifying figure.

Statue of Clement Attlee. Public Domain.

Attlee remained as Leader of the Opposition when the Second World War began, convincing the Party to go into Coalition Government. Attlee stood with Churchill at his lowest ebb, sharing a joint conviction that government had to function efficiently, if generals were to succeed in the field, Churchill, never forgot, “Mr Attlee is a great patriot.” In 1945 Attlee presented to the electorate, an agenda of social patriotism, based on the “Social Insurance and Allied Services” report, drafted by the Liberal economist William Beveridge. In this, Beveridge identified five “Giant Evils” in society, squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. It proposed widespread reform to the system of social welfare. It was widely popular and formed the basis for the welfare state, the expansion of National Insurance and the creation of the National Health Service.

In the 1945 General Election Labour won by a huge landslide, winning 393 seats in Parliament and a majority of 146.  When Attlee went to be appointed Prime Minister by King George VI, the laconic Attlee and the tongue-tied King stood in silence, Attlee finally volunteered the remark, ”I’ve won the Election.” The King replied , ”I know, I heard it on the Six O Clock News.”  Attlee’s Government brought in to law, the National Insurance Act and National Health Service, as well as the 1944 Butler Education Act and Family Allowance Act – it signalled the move from a welfare system based on means testing to one premised on universal provision. The long held wish, expressed in The Social Worker, written in 1922, was realised.

The East End of London had been the inspiration of Clement Attlee. The dreadful living conditions of its population, had moved him from a comfortable middle class world, into radical socialism.   His politics were ones of deep ethical conviction. Inspired by the needs of the people of Limehouse and the East End, he successfully established the Welfare State.

 

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A Visit to Eltham Palace by Tony Keen

Eltham Palace. Photograph by Duncan, Wikimedia cc-by-2.0

On Monday 26th June, English Heritage welcomed the group to one of their exemplary Jewels in the Crown: Eltham Palace.  Port of London Study Group member Tony Keen is an enthusiastic volunteer at the Palace and was fortunate to arrange the visit on a blisteringly hot summer day.

The group met in the ground floor oak panelled room and Tony produced a time line history of the palace.  It was important to remember that we were in the property of the crown and, with our descendant Queen being the rightful owner.  After the Norman Conquest of 1066 William the Conqueror gave lands at Eltham, south of the Thames, to his brother-in-law Bishop Odo who was also commissioned to produce the Bayeux tapestry.

Eltham was little more than a moated manor house in 12th and 13th centuries but it eventually passed into the care of the Bishop of Durham, Anthony Bek (spelt Antony by the Elthamians.)
Very interesting records are held at Durham cathedral concerning Bek.  Anthony Bek built the moat walls in about 1300 and extended the site with more defensive work, a hall and chapter house.  In 1396 Richard ll built the moat bridge which still stands today, albeit supported by a few centuries of repair.  The great medieval hall was built in 1479 by Edward IV (known as “the sun in splendour”) by his master carpenter, who conceived the magnificent hammer beam roof which is one of the finest surviving oak constructions in Europe.  The Tudors took the palace over in 16th C. with Henry VII spending most of his 24 years reign at Eltham and Henry VIII growing up there with his siblings and heirs.  Charles 1st was the last monarch to favour Eltham. Short lived and in 1646 Cromwell abolished the monarchy.  The palace was ransacked by the Parliamentarian troops and the local populace nicked the lead roof, fine panelling . tessera , tiling and stonework. Thus a period of 2 centuries of decay began.  But all was not lost.

The palace became a farm of 45 acres, incorporating the great hunting park with its Georgian mansion,which is now Blackheath golf club.  The farm developed into gentleman’s accommodation but the crown and local people took a dim view of this, and in 1910 the ministry of public works undertook renovation of the site including the great hall and surviving Tudor façades and foundations.

Our thanks to Tony for sharing his considerable knowledge of Eltham Palace on very enjoyable outing.

End of Term Art Shorts

Amelia Curran’s portrait of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

We usually end the term with a series of short presentations on a literary or arts theme followed by lunch. Today did not disappoint – on 20th March we had a very varied programme followed by a delicious lunch in Wapping.

Tony began with a reading of Shelley’s poem “Ozymandias”, which was inspired by the British Museum’s acquisition of a seven and a half ton portion of a statue of Rameses II from Thebes in 1816. It offered Shelley an opportunity for reflection on greatness and its passing. His poem is well known – unlike the poem written by his friend and rival poet, Horace Smith. Tony drew our attention to this poem as a comparison with Shelley’s. Interestingly, Smith’s poem is related to London and envisages a time when the great city no longer exists – all is impermanence – a melancholy but sobering thought perhaps…..

Sarah discussed an art installation created by Stephen Willats in 1978 sponsored by the Port of London Authority and bought by the Museum of Docklands in 2006 – displayed until recently on Floor 2 of the Museum. This work was commissioned at a time of great change in the Docks (and Britain). The traditional industries were disappearing and the impact on communities – like those in the Docklands – was hugely significant. The old landscapes would disappear for ever.  Willats believed that art should be created in the community and that the community should participate in its creation. This work – like the parallel work involving the women of the Ocean Estate in Stepney/Mile End – made use of hours of oral interviews. For this work entitled “Concerning our Present Way of Living”, he interviewed dockers as their industry was coming to an end. He produced 4 large panels 5ft tall x 2ft overlaid with photos, quotations and geometric designs still in the Museum’s ownership and occasionally displayed elsewhere – for example in the Whitechapel Art Gallery at exhibition in 2014.

Lorries Transporting Landing Craft, Royal Albert Docks, London (1945) by Rupert Shephard (Imperial War Museum ART LD 5293). Source: Wikipedia

Continuing an art theme, Fran introduced us to two examples of the work of Rupert Shephard (1909-1992). Shephard trained at the Slade and became part of the Euston Road School for a while with Pasmore and Coldstream. He spent some time in South Africa and during WW2 he was on the Artists Advisory Committee. The two shown were “Lorries Transporting Landing Craft, Royal Albert Docks, London” – a watercolour – and a lino cut from 1975 of the River Lea from the “London: the Passing Silence Series.”  His grandson is the newly appointed Director of the V&A, Tristram Hunt.

Ian gave us an excellent quiz on artists visions of London Bridges from Canaletto’s “Westminster Bridge” (1746), via Fox Talbot, Whistler, Atkinson Grimshaw, Pisarro and Monet, Brangwyn and William Wylie to André Derain and Hugh Casson. He finished with the startlingly colourful John Duffin’s “Albert Bridge” from 2014.

Sue followed up her excellent presentation on Royal Navy Victualling with the unexpected treat of home baked ship’s biscuit and a further discussion of this very basic naval fare!

Barry took us along the Thames from central London to Richmond on a leisurely 18th Century boat cruise. Samuel Leigh was a publisher of travel books and itineraries – his illustrated panorama, some 50ft long, gives a rare, illustrated view of both banks of the Thames as it was developing in the 18th Century. We see the Millbank Penitentiary, the colour works at Chelsea, Mark Brunel’s Saw Mills and the beginnings of a number of industrial manufacturers and isolated villas on the almost empty banks of the River towards Richmond.

Peter concluded the morning with his own panorama of photographs which he is producing as part of his ambitious and continuing plan to walk across London from east to west.

We begin our own series of walks and visits with the Group in the Summer Term on Mondays from 8th May.

Canaletto’s Westminster Bridge with the Lord Mayor’s Procession on the Thames. Source: Google Art Project

Royal Navy Victuallers and the Port of London by Sue Littledale

Sue’s presentation to the Group on the 13th March 2017 took us into the world of naval provisioning, called victualling.  Early histories of the Royal Navy tend to focus on the building of battleships and the growth of the naval dockyards in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.  What is sometimes overlooked is the huge and complex administrative system required to keep that navy adequately fed and watered.  Henry VIII built more than forty battleships and all the sailors on those battleships had to be fed for protracted periods, particularly at times of war.  In 1546 he set up the Navy Board, which originally had responsibility for victualling the Royal Navy.

Tower Hill Yard site. Source: Ian Grainger and Christopher Philpotts ‘The Royal Navy Victualling Yard, East Smithfield, London‘ (MOLA 2010 – used with kind permission)

It was his daughter Elizabeth I who, on acceding to the throne in 1558, first created the post of Surveyor General of the Victuals ‘to take care always to have in store a stock of victuals to supply a thousand men at sea for one month at a fortnight’s notice’.  In 1560 Elizabeth also established a Victualling Office and Yard at Little Tower Hill after purchasing the manor of East Smithfield and a former monastery for £1200.  The complex included storehouses, ovens, brew houses and bakeries. Milling took place across the river at Rotherhithe. Most of the other supplies came from private agents.  This yard served the navy with varying degrees of success for the next hundred years, although shortages often arose.

The Victualling Office was put under more and more strain as the size of the navy increased, particularly during the Anglo-Dutch wars of the mid seventeenth century.  By the end of the second Anglo-Dutch War in 1667 the number of seamen to be supplied had risen to 35,000 and the Tower Hill Victualling Yard had long been inadequate.  In 1672, therefore, a new victualling yard was established at Deptford, where a slaughterhouse for the navy had already been acquired in 1650.

The Royal Victoria Victualling Yard in 1937. Source: PLA collection/Museum of London

New lodgings for the workforce were also built at Deptford and in 1683 an independent Victualling Board was set up.  During the wars of Spanish succession (1701-1714) it met in the Tower Hill offices on a daily basis, and strict regulations and instructions were introduced.  However, it wasn’t until 1742 that the Board took the first step toward making Deptford the centre of its operations.

The move to Deptford took some time but the Victualling Yard at Little Tower Hill was finally closed in 1785. The buildings became government warehouses before the Royal Mint was transferred to the site from the Tower of London in 1806.

In 1742 the Victualling Board had leased 11 acres of the Red House estate to the north-west of Deptford.  Stretching up river from the northern wall of the dockyard, it was part of the Evelyn family estate.  The site already had an 800 foot timber wharf that could accommodate four vessels as well as a collection of warehouses and storehouses.  Recent fires meant some of these would have to be rebuilt although some could be repaired.  By the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in 1793 the yard’s slaughterhouse could accommodate up to 260 oxen; the hog hanging house 650 pigs; the bakehouse had 12 ovens and the spirit vats held 56,000 gallons.

During the Napoleonic wars the navy expanded from 125,000 men in 1800 to over 140,000 in 1810.  The common seaman’s weekly ration in Nelson’s navy was:

  • 7 lbs (3.2 kg) of ship’s biscuit,
  • 4 lbs (1.8 kg) of beef, 2 lbs (907 g) of pork,
  • 2 pints of peas, 3 pints of oatmeal,
  • 6 oz (180 g) of butter,
  • 12 oz (360 g) of cheese
  • a gallon of beer a day

Victualling Yard gates at Deptford, 1841. Source: Old Deptford History website

The relative peace that followed the Napoleonic wars saw a dramatic decline of boat building and maintenance in the Deptford dockyard.  It finally closed in 1869.  However the Victualling Yard just to the north of it continued to thrive and eventually grew to 35 acres as more land was acquired.  The demands of warfare were replaced by the demands of empire and in 1848 it was renamed the Royal Victoria Victualling Yard.  According to the National Archives Deptford remained the largest of the home victualling establishments in the 19th century.  Biscuit, chocolate, mustard, pepper and other foodstuffs were manufactured on site and large supplies of clothing, food, tobacco, rum and naval stores were maintained.

It was not until the mid-20th century that the yard eventually outlived its usefulness.  It finally ceased operations in 1961. The Pepys Estate in Deptford, built in the same decade, now occupies the site. The yard’s few surviving 18th century buildings have been incorporated into the estate.

Marshes: Erith, Slade Green, Crayford and Dartford by Peter Luck

On Monday Peter talked to us about the Thames Marshes of Erith, Slade Green, Crayford and Dartford.  He says that the title of this talk is a little misleading; these places do not appear in their own right but do ring around the land side of the marshes which survive as mostly open land on the south shore of the Thames and were the subject of a 2005 masterplan for keeping them that way.

Howbury Manor from The remains of Howbury Manor from Moat Lane. Photograph by Marathon CC BY-SA 2.0

There had probably been a presence on the marshes from at least Roman times and certainly an Anglo-Saxon presence from the 5th century.  Following the Norman conquest the manor of Hoobury was given to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux (who also took Erith, Plumstead, Charlton, Lea and Eltham –  a large chunk of present day southeast London). The manor passed down through centuries, its name slightly changing to the present Howbury and at the turn of the eighteenth century being in the ownership of Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell who, aside from naval duties was also the Commissioner for Sewers, having responsibility for the upkeep of Thames embankments from Deptford to Gravesend. I am not sure when the marshes were first drained and embanked but almost certainly several centuries before Shovell’s day. They have since been raised twice, in 1879 and after the great flood of 1953 along with the construction of a raising barrier to the river Darenth where it enters the Thames.

The manor of Howbury survives in the form of a moated enclosure  near to Slade Green. The house within the moat, of uncertain date, probably 17th century, does not survive but a large Jacobean tithe barn remains in the adjoining farmyard.

In the westerly angle between the Darenth and the Thames aerial photographs from 1953 show a more-or-less orderly scatter of small, well-spaced buildings typical of works making or handling explosives. The Thames Ammunition Works had been opened here in 1879, one of several firms operating in the Erith area concerned with armaments. Vickers were in Erith, later in Crayford, and the local industrialist Sir William Anderson, co-founder of the firm Easton and Anderson, initially concerned with hydraulics, moved into ordnance and became Government Director of Ordnance Factories.  Thames Ammunition Works took advantage of its being quite near Woolwich and having a location on the river which enabled it to bypass risky road transport. In WW1 it was taken under government control and after the war passed to W.B. Gilbert Ltd who broke munitions there. Taking apart munitions is every bit as dangerous as putting them together and an explosion in 1924 killed twelve women workers. Very briefly, during WW1 the works had a rail link known as the Trench Warfare Light Railway. Nothing of it survived beyond the end of the war and it seems never to have appeared on an OS map. The works themselves remained until the 1970s since when the sheds and yards of an industrial estate have taken over the ground.

Long Reach Tavern. Source: Museum of London Collections

On the opposite bank of the Darenth an isolated pub, the Long Reach Tavern stood, being strangely well-patronised both by river workers and by devotees of cock-fighting and bare knuckle boxing, both illegal. The pub survived into the post WW2 era latterly popular with off-duty workers from the isolation hospitals. In 1911 the Vickers company took an area of marsh extending south from the pub and foreshore, boarded over the drainage ditches to make runways and used it as an airfield for testing their new aircraft. This was taken over for use as an air force training facility. Sheds were built to house the tiny planes, and various ancillary buildings. This was not a very sensible location for such a facility: rookie pilots having trouble with their plane could crash into the explosive works or an isolation hospital or a sewage farm or the Thames and the attempt to turn back could itself lead to a crash. The accident rate and death toll were both far too high. The site closed at the end of the war.

Opposite the Long Reach Tavern smallpox hospital ships were moored, in use until 1903 when the Long Reach Hospital was opened on the neighbouring shore, a little downstream from the airfield. This lasted until 1974 ever less used and was demolished in 1975. Nothing of the hospital stands but the line of the tramway which connected it to the two isolation hospitals Joyce Green and Orchard built on the slightly higher ground at the back of the marsh. These too no longer stand and have been the subject of other talks in PLSG and are not described here.

Close by the track which leads out onto the marsh and the site of the airfield is an orderly scatter of small corrugated iron huts now falling apart and being invaded by vegetation. This was the factory of Joseph Wells, makers of firework. The company was founded in 1837 in Dartford and operated until the 1970s producing both domestic fireworks and major display works with a world-wide clientele. On its closure, some of the staff had taken the name to West Sussex. The company continues active there, specialising in stage and special effects pyrotechnics.

 

 

Disease and Health Care in the Port of London by Sheila Dobner

On Monday Sheila talked to us about the development of health management in the Port of London.  We have previously heard about the hospital ships, which took smallpox patients from the population of London to isolate them on the river down at Dartford. They were not dealing specifically with those who worked the port.  The ships finished in 1904 due to the high cost of maintenance and limitations of space, and the service was brought ashore to the Joyce Green Hospital. Along with the Orchard and Long Reach Hospitals these were known as the River Hospitals, which were used as fever hospitals and for casualties in two world wars. They were demolished in 2000.

Services for Seamen

Dreadnought Hospital (source: Portcities)

The Dreadnought Hospital at Greenwich was set up to treat seamen and also began as a ship in 1821, originally named the Grampus.  The hospital came ashore in 1870, inhabiting the vacant infirmary building of the Royal Naval College. It housed around 250 patients and also handled urgent medical cases from the local community. The policy of the hospital was to provide help and care for “all distressed seamen”. This included seamen of all nationalities passing through including Indians, Swedes, Norwegians, Africans, Chinese and Americans. In 1877 the hospital opened one of the country’s first training schools for nurses. The Devonport Nurses Home still stands in Greenwich. The hospital was funded through charitable donations and subscriptions so fundraising events and flag days were an important source of income. Illnesses which the hospital treated included broken bones, dysentery, typhoid, ulcers, wounds, rheumatism and venereal disease. During the construction of the Blackwall Tunnel in the 1890s the Dreadnought acted as unofficial first-aid post for labourers injured during the building works. The building company Pearson later acknowledged that support by helping to raise £400 towards the hospital’s funds. After the First World War the society opened its first convalescent home at Cudham in Kent. A major sanatorium for seamen who had tuberculosis (TB) was built in Hampshire in 1921. As shipping on the Thames declined in the 20th century, the hospital fell out of use and finally closed in 1986. The building more recently became the library of the University of Greenwich (building work at the moment). The Dreadnought Medical Society however still exists, based at Guys and St Thomas’s and is part of the NHS, providing special services for merchant seamen and their families.

The focus of the port had moved away from Greenwich so the foundation stone for a new hospital for the care of merchant seamen was laid on 15th July 1889 by the Prince of Wales (later King George V). The Royal Albert Dock Hospital was officially opened on 24th June 1890 by the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII).  It was a branch of the Dreadnought Seamen’s Hospital.  The Hospital had two general wards of 5 beds each, a 2-bedded isolation ward and 2 single rooms, an Out-Patient Department, dispensary, kitchen, post-mortem room and an ambulance house.  Located in Connaught  Road, near the western entrance to the Royal Albert Docks, it was managed by the Seafarer’s Hospital Society and was open to the general public.  However, it dealt mainly with injuries acquired by dock workers.  The dockside buildings suffered from subsidence, with the foundations collapsing, so in 1937 the Hospital moved to new premises, built at the cost of £68,100, at a site donated by the Port of London Authority in Alnwick Road, Custom House.  It was officially opened by Queen Mary in 1938.  The new Hospital had 55 beds and an Out-Patients Department, including a fracture clinic, a rehabilitation centre and a VD unit.  A Nurses’ Home had also been built.  In 1948 it joined the NHS and became known as the Albert Dock Seamen’s Hospital.

Tropical Diseases

The Albert Dock Seamen’s Hospital has an important role in the history of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as it was here that it was founded by Sir Patrick Manson, the Director of the Hospital, in 1899. It was set up to treat British colonial administrators for malaria and other diseases. In 1920 it moved to Endsleigh Gardens in central London, moving in 1929 to its present site off Gower Street, where it is renowned for its postgraduate teaching and research into diseases such as HIV/aids, Malaria, TB, Ebola, and Zika.

Quarantine

The “Lima” quarantine flag. Source: Wikipedia

When a ship was known to be carrying a disease or was arriving from a port where an epidemic had broken out, it was delayed the disembarkation of passengers, or the unloading of cargo until the ship seemed to be free of disease. It was first used to keep out the plague after the Black Death hit Europe, also cholera, yellow fever. The term comes from the Italian quarante from the period of 40 days for which ships were detained.

The first quarantine station on the Thames was at Stangate Creek, near Sheerness. Ships flying the quarantine flag were detained here under guard. Quarantine  at the time had only limited effect, for a number of reasons.  Chief amongst these were that bacteria and viruses were not discovered until the late 19th century so transmission of disease was little understood; quarantine was not enforced well enough; inspections were carried out by customs officials rather than doctors; and healthy people on board were at risk of infection.

In 1872 the Port Sanitary Authorities (PSAs) were created to increase the effectiveness of quarantine measures. They had the power to inspect incoming vessels and their cargoes, and the duty to investigate any health problem connected with the port. The City of London took on this responsibility for the Port of London. The area covered included the whole of the Tidal Thames from Teddington Lock in the west and the lower Medway -94 miles in all.

In the beginning, the PSAs concentrated on disease control, as infectious diseases were still a very serious threat to public health. With the increase in numbers of immigrants, the PSAs carried out medical inspections of new arrivals (especially those the authorities described as ‘low-class aliens’).  As with the earlier quarantine ships, the Port of London PSA carried out much of its work lower down the Thames. In 1883 the Corporation built an isolation hospital for sick and quarantined seamen at Denton in Gravesend. Neither the patients nor the ship owners was charged for care and treatment.

Quarantine continued until 1889, when the Infectious Diseases Prevention Act was passed, giving medical officers the authority to board and inspect the ship’s crews and passengers.  The Act also introduced regulations to deal with cholera, yellow fever and plague.  Vessels arriving from a foreign port (most European ports were exempt) were subject to inspection.  Any persons with an infectious disease were removed, together with their belongings and bedding, and taken by launch to Denton (a pier and pontoon were added later to the site, so that the Hospital was accessible at all stages of the tide).  In 1905 some 36 patients were treated at the Hospital.

A Samaritan Fund was set up to help destitute seamen whose clothes and possessions had been destroyed during the disinfection process. The Hospital was maintained by the Port Sanitary Authority (whose title was changed to the Port Health Authority by the Public Health (London) Act, 1936) and funded by the Corporation of London from its corporate funds until 1920, when its costs were defrayed by the rates and an Exchequer grant.

The hulk Hygeia, moored off Gravesend since 1922, from which all incoming ships were inspected, was used as a quarantine station and a base for the launches. She also contained accommodation for the boarding medical officers, who provided a service 24 hours a day. (The wooden ship was replaced in 1935 by an Admiralty lighter made of steel which had been built in 1918.  She was renamed the Hygeia.)

Port of London Isolation Hospital 1954. Source: Dartford Hospital Histories

During the 1930s the Hospital was enlarged and, by the end of the decade, consisted of various one- and two-storey buildings.  The administration block  also contained the Medical Officers’ quarters, 12 rooms for the nurses (including one for Matron), and accommodation for the kitchen and laundry staff.  The wards consisted of a cubicle block with 8 cubicles, each for two patients; a typhoid block of two wards – one with 18 beds and one with 6 beds; and a smallpox block of two wards with 6 beds each for sea-borne cases of smallpox, with accommodation for two nurses.  The disinfecting station contained two baths and three showers, with a laundry and equipment for steam disinfection.  A caretaker’s cottage and an outbuilding for the gardener’s stores completed the campus.  The staff employed were a part-time Medical Officer, a Matron, 3 nurses, a cook, 4 maids, a caretaker, a laundress and a gardener.  The Hospital was normally under the control of the Deputy Port Medical Officer of Health.  Between 1930 and 1936 about 50 to 60 patients a year were admitted.  The patients were not only seamen, but also passengers (male and female), dockers, stevedores and any others working ashore in the Port Health Authority’s territory.  Diseases treated included chickenpox, measles and German measles, diphtheria, smallpox (only 2 cases during the 1930s, in 1935), mumps, malaria, bubonic plague, typhoid, scarlet fever, enteric fever, dysentery, scabies, tonsillitis, pyrexia, septic throat, impetigo, hepatitis, colitis, angina, jaundice and eczema.

During WW2, the Hospital suffered serious bomb damage in 1940 and was closed for bed cases, although the disinfection unit remained open.  In February 1942 the Admiralty requisitioned the site for use as a treatment centre for servicemen with venereal disease and parasitic infections (scabies).  Two Nissen huts were built in the grounds for this purpose.

The Hospital reopened in August 1947, when it had 32 beds.  In the same year the City of London Corporation applied for it to be disclaimed from the National Health Service on the grounds that it provided a unique service, while the Seamen’s Hospitals did not admit women or dock workers, only professional sea-farers.  The application failed and the Hospital joined the NHS in 1948, grouped with the Seamen’s Hospitals under the control of the South East Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board.  Patients were still brought to the Hospital by ambulance launch.  The Medical Officers had various quarantine launches at their disposal – the  Howard Deighton, the Alfred Roach, the Alfred Robinson and the Frederick Whittingham.  The Humphrey Morris, bought in 1962, had a consulting room, with accommodation for two stretcher cases and three ambulant patients.  By 1966 the Hospital had 20 beds and, by 1971, 8 beds.  It closed in 1976.  Services moved to Joyce Green Hospital.

This wonderful video from 1948 shows a Port of London Authority. Health Ship P.L.A. health ship meeting an infected ship and offering assistance, fumigating the ship with cyanide.
http://www.britishpathe.com/video/p-l-a-health-ship/query/port+of+london

The Port Health Authority Today

The London Port Health Authority is the largest port health authority in the UK. They are responsible for all port health functions on the Thames, including the ports at London Gateway, Tilbury, Thamesport (Isle of Grain, formerly Port Victoria), Sheerness and  London City Airport.  Functions include:

  • imported food and feed controls
  • infectious disease controls
  • food safety and hygiene, including water quality
  • environmental controls, including noise, refuse, and industrial emissions
  • a 24-hour standby service for infectious disease control available every day of the year

The staff of the London Port Health Authority work at various offices in the district, together with launch crew who operate the Authority’s launches, Lady Aileen and Londinium III, a Rigid Inflatable Boat (RIB), a smaller RIB and a work boat. Staff include the Port Health and Public Protection Director who is based at Walbrook Wharf in the City of London, local Port Health Managers, Port Health Officers, official veterinarians, technical officers, Port Health Assistants, and Support Assistants.  They  use the services of public analysts, consultants in communicable disease control and Boarding Medical Officers, together with the services of Public Health England.

Dockers and their families

Albert Dock Seamen’s Hospital. Source: Wikipedia.

Dock work was always dangerous and relied largely on muscle power. In the port, safety was a low priority and accidents were common. Manoeuvring large, heavy objects between ships and shore via narrow gangplanks which might be slippery with ice and muck was fraught with danger. Men could be drowned or crushed, falling between the hull of the ship and the dock.  The dock area was often a chaos of men and vehicles. Grappling hooks were dangerous implements being swung around. Cargoes could fall from nets or slings being winched to and fro. Cranes, winches, tractors, locomotives and platform trucks were further hazards.  Cargoes were often of dangerous substances. Bags containing asbestos, iodine, phosphates, guano, lead or cement, would frequently burst, showering the men with their noxious contents. Within the holds of the ships, barrels and chests would be dislodged, crushing men beneath them. There was little in the way of protective clothing.

With increased competition in the 19th century, corners were cut. Dockers were on low wages often paid by quantity of goods shifted and dock owners were piling on the pressure. New labour coming in from the countryside and from Ireland was inexperienced in handling cargoes. The work was dangerous, dirty and tiring and accidents were inevitable. One more recent docker recalls “I’ve had chaps working with me down a ship’s hold that never handled a hook or done a job down a ship’s hold in their lives. On one occasion, put on sugar, and I gave him a hook…And said “now put your hook in there”, and I’m saying that, as he did so he went literally – bashed his hook right through the middle of me hand. I’ve still got a little hole there now. Almost pinned me hand to the bag of sugar.”  Neither the wharfingers nor the dock companies provided any health care for their workers. Most port workers had no income if they were unable to work at any time. A permanent injury or fatal accident could put the whole family in the workhouse, or leave them with the option of begging or crime.

The first casualty hospital in Poplar was built in the 1850s, thanks to the Quaker banker and philanthropist Samuel Gurney and William Money Wigram, partner in a shipping line. Gurney decided to set up the hospital after the notorious death of a labourer injured at the East India Docks. The man died on the way to the London Hospital at Mile End, the nearest hospital to the docks. It was clear that many deaths could have been avoided had medical facilities been available on the spot.  The former Custom House, across the road from the entrance to East India Dock entrance was purchased and transformed into the new Poplar Hospital in 1855/8? At first it catered only for the male workers at the port, but it was later expanded to provide general facilities for the Poplar district. A new wing, including wards for women, was added in 1891-4. At one point, it was estimated that a dozen new cases were being treated at the hospital every hour of the day and night, and the hospital bore a plaque “in grateful recognition of the splendid services rendered by the Hospital to the Staff of the London and India Dock Company, since the Hospital was established”.

Poplar Borough Council published its Official Guide to the Metropolitan Borough of Poplar in 1927, and reported that: “Accidents in the Port of London, in the docks and shipping, amongst the factories and the engineering works, are of frequent occurrence, and often of the most terrible character … immediate attention to the injured is often a vital consideration.”

The hospital suffered bomb damage in 1941 but didn’t close until 1975. In 1982 it was demolished to make way for new houses – the old Victorian buildings and limited space no longer suitable for the demands of modern medicine, though the people of Poplar would miss their local hospital. But by then of course, the docks were all but dead and the NHS had taken over.

Hawksmoor’s Docklands Churches by Fran Bulwer

Fran’ s talk on Monay was on Sir Christopher Wren’s pupil, the architect Nicholas Hawksmoor, with particular focus on four of his churches in the Docklands. A scheme to extend state-sponsored church-building, which had started with Wren’s 52 City churches after the Great Fire of 1666, was revived in 1711 under Queen Anne with funds for 50 more churches in the new suburbs, paid for by a tax in London-bound coal. These churches would reaffirm Anglicanism as the national religion in areas with high numbers of dissenters and different Protestant groups, seen as something of a threat to the established Church.

St Anne's Limehouse. Photograph by Sue Wallace CC BY-SA 2.0

St Anne’s Limehouse. Photograph by Sue Wallace CC BY-SA 2.0

Hawksmoor led the Commission into selecting, buying and surveying appropriate land and then overseeing the designs, construction, quality and cost of the building project. The number of churches was soon scaled back to twelve for financial reasons. He designed six himself, worked on two with John James, who did two himself, while John Gibb did one and Thomas Archer two. Eleven of the twelve are still in use today, although not all for their original purpose.

St Alfege’s, Greenwich was the first of the churches in Thameside areas and was to replace a collapsed medieval church on the site. It shows Hawksmoor’s characteristic boxy nave and classical references. It was restored after serious WW2 bomb damage and survives today in central Greenwich, unfortunately next to a very busy one-way system.

St Anne’s Limehouse, with its very high tower – the design of which was transposed from St Alfege – was designed as a Thames shipping landmark with its illuminated clock regulated from Greenwich and its naval ensign constantly flying from the tower. While restored externally in recent years, the interior is not in prime condition but it remains as an imposing reminder of the role of the Church in Docklands communities.

St George-in-the-East in Wapping was built for a rapidly growing, mixed class port community which became increasingly poor and multi-cultural during the 18th and 19th centuries, providing much material for Dickens, Conan Doyle and sensationalist newspapers. It was badly damaged by the Luftwaffe in 1941, along with much of Wapping, and the shell of Hawkmoor’s original church now contains a small 1950’s church within the old nave.

Christ Church Spitalfields is the most flourishing of the churches in East London today, thanks to its location next to the recently renovated Spitalfields Market on the edge of the City. Although damaged by fire and changed in the mid1800’s and threatened with demolition in the 1970’s when nearly derelict, it now looks magnificent after many years of restoration and flourishes as a church and concert venue with a popular crypt cafe.

St George’s Bloomsbury and St Mary Woolnoth in the City are also doing well after restoration work.

Hawksmoor had a remarkable career and London, Oxford and Yorkshire all continue to enjoy the masterpieces of Wren’s ‘draughtsman’, who never quite achieved the fame of his more illustrious master but was surely his equal in originality and style. His style was despised for many years after his death in 1736 but his genius is now fully acknowledged.